Work Smarter Not Harder 28 Tips That Boost Your Work Day

Work Smarter Bot Harder 28 Tips That Boost Your Work Day

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How to Read This Book

Who is This Book For?

This book is mainly geared towards office workers (both at home or in a cubicle).

While the tips are mainly geared towards those who have a day job, all the advice can be applied to home offices, too.

Even if you don’t work in those particular environments, you can still pick up some valuable tips to improve your everyday performance.

Introduction

1. Write Things Down
2. Track Your (Deep Work) Hours
3. Write an Operating Document
4. Show Your Skills
5. Take Advantage of Commuting Times
6. Maximize Your Evening and Morning Rituals
7. Set the Expectations Right
8. Preparation is the Key to Success
9. Turn off Electronics Early Enough
10. Switch Your Workspace Based on the Task
11. Walk Away from the Task – and Then Come Back
12. Keep Others Updated of the Status of Long-Running Task
13. Have a Status Meeting Every Day
14. Keep Perfection at Bay
15. Create Healthy Habits Almost by an Accident
16. Waiting Time Can Be Productive, Too
17. Don’t Let the Clutter Escalate
18. Have a Personal Knowledge Base
19. Create a Starting and Finishing Routine for Your Day
20. Try to Find an Eliminator Task in a Group of Similar Tasks
21. Ask: What Can I Do to Improve the Productivity for Others?
22. Use a Standing Desk
23. Know When You Are Working and When You Are Not
24. Buy Some Free Time with Your Salary
25. Let Others Know When They Can Interrupt You
26. Know Which Types of Tasks to Work on and When
27. Semi-Delay Your Email Checking
28. Feel Grateful for What You are Doing
Conclusion
Questions and Comments
You Might Also Like

About the Author

Timo Kiander runs a productivity blog called Productive Superdad. His blog helps individuals interested in personal productivity on two levels: By improving their personal productivity, at work or in life and becoming more organized.

Timo is also into endurance sports. He has run 18 marathons so far, and has already lost count of how many triathlons he has participated in. In his free time, he likes to spend as much time as possible with his wife and son.

Timo is very approachable and easy to get along with, so don’t hesitate to contact him if you have any questions regarding this book (or any other matter) by sending him an e-mail at: timo@productivesuperdad.com.

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Apache Hadoop CookBook Opensource Software Framework Written In Java

Apache Hadoop CookBook Free Download

Below is Book Index it has completely 199 Pages

  • “HelloWorld” Example
  • Introduction
  • Hadoop Word-Count Example
  • Setup
  • Mapper Code
  • Reducer Code
  • Putting it all together, The Driver Class
  • Running the example
  • Download the complete source code

1. How to Install Apache Hadoop on Ubuntu

  • Introduction
  • Prerequisites
  • Installing Java
  • Creating a Dedicated User
  • Disable ipv
  • Installing SSH and Setting up certificate
  • Installing Apache Hadoop
  • Download Apache Hadoop
  • Updating bash
  • Configuring Hadoop
  • Formatting the Hadoop Filesystem
  • Starting Apache Hadoop
  • Testing MapReduce Job
  • Stopping Apache Hadoop
  • Conclusion

Apache Hadoop Cookbook

2. FS Commands Example

  • Introduction
  • Common Commands
  • Create a directory
  • List the content of the directory
  • Upload a file in HDFS
  • Download a file from HDFS
  • View the file content
  • Copying a file
  • Moving file from source to destination
  • Removing the file or the directory from HDFS
  • Displaying the tail of a file
  • Displaying the aggregate length of a particular file
  • Count the directories and files
  • Details of space in the file system
  • Conclusion

3. Cluster Setup Example

  • Introduction
  • Requirements
  • Preparing Virtual Machine
  • Creating VM and Installing Guest OS
  • Installing Guest Additions
  • Creating Cluster of Virtual Machines
  • VM Network settings
  • Cloning the Virtual Machine
  • Testing the network IPs assigned to VMs
  • Converting to Static IPs for VMs
  • Hadoop prerequisite settings
  • Creating User
  • Disable ipv
  • Connecting the machines (SSH Access)
  • Hadoop Setup
  • Download Hadoop
  • Update bashrc
  • Configuring Hadoop
  • Formatting the Namenode
  • Start the Distributed Format System
  • Testing MapReduce Job
  • Stopping the Distributed Format System
  • Conclusion
  • Download configuration files

Apache Hadoop Cookbook

4. Distcp Example

  • Introduction
  • Syntax and Examples
  • Basic
  • Multiple Sources
  • Update and Overwrite Flag
  • Ignore Failures Flag
  • Maximum Map Tasks
  • Final Notes

5. Distributed File System Explained

  • Introduction
  • HDFS Design
  • System failures
  • Can handle large amount of data
  • Coherency Model
  • Portability
  • HDFS Nodes
  • NameNode
  • DataNode
  • HDFS Architecture
  • Working of NameNode and DataNode
  • HDFS Namespace
  • Data Replication
  • Failures
  • Data Accessibility
  • Configuring HDFS
  • Configuring HDFS
  • Formating NameNode
  • Starting the HDFS
  • Interacting with HDFS using Shell
  • Creating a directory
  • List the content of the directory
  • Upload a file in HDFS
  • Download a file from HDFS
  • Interacting with HDFS using MapReduce
  • Conclusion
  • Download the code

Apache Hadoop Cookbook

6.Distributed Cache Example

  • Introduction
  • Working
  • Implementation
  • The Driver Class
  • Map Class
  • Reduce Class
  • Executing the Hadoop Job
  • Conclusion
  • Download the Eclipse Project

7. Wordcount Example

  • Introduction
  • MapReduce
  • Word-Count Example
  • Setup
  • Mapper Code
  • Reducer Code
  • The Driver Class
  • Code Execution
  • In Eclipse IDE
  • On Hadoop Cluster
  • Conclusion
  • Download the Eclipse Project

8. Streaming Example

  • Introduction
  • Prerequisites and Assumptions
  • Hadoop Streaming Workflow
  • MapReduce Code in Python
  • Wordcount Example
  • Mapper
  • Reducer
  • Testing the Python code
  • Submitting and Executing the Job on Hadoop cluster
  • Input Data
  • Transferring input data to HDFS
  • Submitting the MapReduce Job
  • Understanding the Console Log
  • MapReduce Job Output
  • Conclusion
  • Download the Source Code

Apache Hadoop Cookbook

9. Zookeeper Example

  • Introduction
  • How Zookeeper Works?
  • Zookeeper Setup
  • System Requirements
  • Install Java
  • Download Zookeeper
  • Data Directory
  • Configuration File
  • Starting The Server
  • Zookeeper Server Basic Interaction
  • Starting The CLI
  • Creating The First Znode
  • Retrieving Data From The First Znode
  • Modifying Data in Znode
  • Creating A Subnode
  • Removing A Node
  • Conclusion

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Hadoop is an Apache Software Foundation project. It is the open source version inspired by Google MapReduce and Google File System.

It is designed for distributed processing of large data sets across a cluster of systems often running on commodity standard hardware.

Hadoop is designed with an assumption that all hardware fails sooner or later and the system should be robust and able to handle the hardware failures automatically.

Apache Hadoop consists of two core components, they are:

• Distributed File System called Hadoop Distributed File System or HDFS for short.
• Framework and API for MapReduce jobs.

In this example, we are going to demonstrate the second component of Hadoop framework called MapReduce and we will do so by Word Count Example (Hello World program of the Hadoop Ecosystem) but first we shall understand what MapReduce actually is.

MapReduce is basically a software framework or programming model, which enable users to write programs so that data can be processed parallelly across multiple systems in a cluster. MapReduce consists of two parts Map and Reduce.

• Map: Map task is performed using a map() function that basically performs filtering and sorting. This part is responsible for processing one or more chunks of data and producing the output results which are generally referred as intermediate results. As shown in the diagram below, map task is generally processed in parallel provided the mapping operation is independent of  each other.

• Reduce: Reduce task is performed by reduce() function and performs a summary operation. It is responsible for consolidating the results produced by each of the Map task.

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Linux Server Security Hack and Defend

Linux Server Security Hack and Defend – Free Book Download

Linux Server Security Hack and Defend – Free Book Download

Chapter 1: Invisibility Cloak 1

  • Background 1
  • Probing Ports 1
  • Confusing a Port Scanner 2
  • Installing knockd 2
  • Packages 3
  • Changing Default Settings 3
  • Altering Filesystem Locations 4
  • Some Confi g Options 5
  • Starting the Service 5
  • Changing the Default Network Interface 5
  • Packet Types and Timing 5
  • Testing Your Install 6
  • Port Knocking Clients 7
  • Making Your Server Invisible 7
  • Testing Your iptables 8
  • Saving iptables Rules 9
  • Further Considerations 10
  • Smartphone Client 10
  • Troubleshooting 10
  • Security Considerations 10
  • Ephemeral Sequences 11

Chapter 2: Digitally Fingerprint Your Files 13

  • Filesystem Integrity 13
  • Whole Filesystem 16
  • Rootkits 17
  • Confi guration 19
  • False Positives 21
  • Well Designed 22

Chapter 3: Twenty-First-Century Netcat 25

  • History 25
  • Installation Packages 27
  • Getting Started 27
  • Transferring Files 29
  • Chatting Example 30
  • Chaining Commands Together 30
  • Secure Communications 31
  • Executables 33
  • Access Control Lists 34
  • Miscellaneous Options 34

Chapter 4: Denying Service 37

  • NTP Infrastructure 37
  • NTP Refl ection Attacks 38
  • Attack Reporting 40
  • Preventing SNMP Refl ection 41
  • DNS Resolvers 42
  • Complicity 43
  • Bringing a Nation to Its Knees 44
  • Mapping Attacks 45

Chapter 5: Nping g 49

  • Functionality 49
  • TCP 50
  • Interpreter 51
  • UDP 52
  • ICMP 52
  • ARP 53
  • Payload Options 53
  • Echo Mode 54
  • Other Nping Options 57

Chapter 6: Logging Reconnoiters 59

  • ICMP Misconceptions 59
  • tcpdump 60
  • Iptables 61
  • Multipart Rules 64
  • Log Everything for Forensic Analysis 64
  • Hardening 65

Chapter 7: Nmap’s Prodigious NSE 69

  • Basic Port Scanning 69
  • The Nmap Scripting Engine 71
  • Timing Templates 73
  • Categorizing Scripts 74
  • Contributing Factors 75
  • Security Holes 75
  • Authentication Checks 77
  • Discovery 78
  • Updating Scripts 79
  • Script Type 80
  • Regular Expressions 80
  • Graphical User Interfaces 81
  • Zenmap 81

Chapter 8: Malware Detection 85

  • Getting Started 85
  • Defi nition Update Frequency 85
  • Malware Hash Registry 86
  • Prevalent Threats 86
  • LMD Features 86
  • Monitoring Filesystems 88
  • Installation 88
  • Monitoring Modes 90
  • Confi guration 91
  • Exclusions 91
  • Running from the CLI 92
  • Reporting 92
  • Quarantining and Cleaning 93
  • Updating LMD 94
  • Scanning and Stopping Scans 94
  • Cron Job 96
  • Reporting Malware 96
  • Apache Integration 96

Chapter 9: Password Cracking with Hashcat 99

  • History 99
  • Understanding Passwords 99
  • Keyspace 100
  • Hashes 101
  • Using Hashcat 103
  • Hashcat Capabilities 103
  • Installation 103
  • Hash Identification 104
  • Choosing Attack Mode 106
  • Downloading a Wordlist 106
  • Rainbow Tables 107
  • Running Hashcat 107
  • oclHashcat 110
  • Hashcat-Utils 111

Chapter 10: SQL Injection Attacks 113

  • History 113
  • Basic SQLi 114
  • Mitigating SQLi in PHP 115
  • Exploiting SQL Flaws 117
  • Launching an Attack 118
  • Trying SQLi Legally 120

Index 123

Linux Server Security – Hack and Defend Free Book Download

The chapters contained within this book can be read in any order and are a collection of security topics that have interested the author on his journey as an Internet user over the years

The topics vary from the theory of past, current, and future attacks, to the mitigation and defense from a variety of online attacks, all the way to empowering readers to perform malicious attacks themselves (in the hope they will learn how to defend against such attacks)

By separating the various topics into chapters, the subjects can be referenced and returned to in the future to allow the reader to recount the content in greater detail The content of each chapters is as follows:

Chapter 1: Invisibility Cloak: If an attacker can’t see your server and isn’t aware of its existence, then there isn’t any attack vector to exploit in the fi rst place We discuss and demonstrate how to continue using services in production but without the unwelcome attention of attackers

Chapter 2: Digitally Fingerprint Your Files: There are a number ways of keeping an eye on the integrity of your server’s fi lesystems to ensure attackers haven’t gained access In this chapter we look at both a manual method and an automated tool that checks for rootkits

Chapter 3: Twenty-First-Century Netcat: Steeped in history, the modern-day version of Netcat, thanks to its multitude of advanced features, has become a hacker’s tool of choice Learn how to spot if such a tool is being used against your servers and additionally how to utilize its industry-leading functionality

Chapter 4: Denying Service: Only a handful of the world’s largest Internet infrastructure providers can withstand the devastating effects of a full-fl edged, high-capacity Distributed Denial of Service attack In this chapter we discuss the topic in detail and even comment on an entire country losing Internet connectivity for three weeks due to such an attack

Chapter 5: Nping: Knowing which services a host is running is only half the battle This extension of the powerful Nmap security tool allows you to check just that on any host and also craft custom packets with unique payloads

Chapter 6: Logging Reconnoiters: Although certain probes executed against your server might seem harmless enough, there is little doubt that being aware of how they work helps you secure your server further We examine several facets of an attacker reconnoitering your server’s vulnerable points

Chapter 7: Nmap’s Prodigious NSE: Many users will have used Nmap for simple port scans, but few know that the security tool includes the ability to exploit remote machines too Weexplore just some of the many possibilities starting with the plethora of scripts that Nmapships with by default

Chapter 8: Malware Detection: A sometimes entirely silent threat that has plagued Windows systems for years comes in the form of illegitimately installed software The damage that can be done to a system by malware ranges from annoying pop-up windows to full-fl edged online banking compromises In this chapter we learn how to deploy a sophisticated, frequently updated anti-malware solution on Linux

Chapter 9: Password Cracking with Hashcat: Technical professionals might be alarmed to discover that one password-cracking tool all but guarantees that it can crack a hashed password This means that if access to your hashed password is gained illegitimately, then it’s just a matter of time before an attacker can see your password in plain text This chapter walks you through the process, step by step

Chapter 10: SQL Injection Attacks: In one prominent survey, SQL injection attacks were listed as the most prevalent online attack Despite the fact that this type of attack dates back to the late 1990s, even today a frighteningly large number of such attacks successfully exploit websites belonging to enterprises and key online services through poor programming practices This chapter offers some useful historical information along with step-bystep instructions on how to identify and exploit vulnerable online services

Linux Server Security – Hack and Defend

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User Mode Linux UML

User Mode Linux UML Free Book Download

User Mode Linux (UML) Book Download

Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
About the Author xiii

1 Introduction 1
What Is UML? 1
Comparison with Other Virtualization Technologies 2
Why Virtual Machines? 3
A Bit of History 4
What Is UML Used For? 8
Server Consolidation 8
Education 10
Development 12
Disaster Recovery Practice 13
The Future 14

2 A Quick Look at UML 17
Booting UML for the First Time 20
Booting UML Successfully 24
Looking at a UML from the Inside and Outside 29
Conclusion 37

3 Exploring UML 39
Logging In as a Normal User 39
Consoles and Serial Lines 40
Adding Swap Space 47
Partitioned Disks 49
UML Disks as Raw Data 53
Networking 54
Shutting Down 59

4 A Second UML Instance 61
COW Files 61
Booting from COW Files 67
Moving a Backing File 69
Merging a COW File with Its Backing File 70
Networking the UML Instances 71
A Virtual Serial Line 79

5 Playing with a UML Instance 83
Use and Abuse of UML Block Devices 83
Networking and the Host 87

6 UML Filesystem Management 101
Mounting Host Directories within a UML 101
hostfs 104
humfs 108
Host Access to UML Filesystems 114
Making Backups 116
Extending Filesystems 117
When to Use What 118

7 UML Networking in Depth 121
Manually Setting Up Networking 121
TUN/TAP with Routing 121
Bridging 136
The UML Networking Transports 142
Access to the Host Network 143
Isolated Networks 145
pcap 145
How to Choose the Right Transport 146
Configuring the Transports 147
An Extended Example 155
A Multicast Network 155
A Second Multicast Network 156
Adding a uml_switch Network 160
Summary of the Networking Example 166

8 Managing UML Instances from the Host 167
The Management Console 167
MConsole Queries 168
The uml_mconsole Client 182
The MConsole Protocol 183
The MConsole Perl Library 185
Requests Handled in Process and Interrupt Contexts 186
MConsole Notifications 186
Controlling a UML Instance with Signals 188

9 Host Setup for a Small UML Server 191
Host Kernel Version 192
UML Execution Modes 194
tt Mode 197
skas3 Mode 198
skas0 Mode 200
To Patch or Not to Patch? 201
Vanderpool and Pacifica 202
Managing Long-Lived UML Instances 203
Networking 206
UML Physical Memory 206
Host Memory Consumption 208
umid Directories 209
Overall Recommendations 209

10 Large UML Server Management 211
Security 212
UML Configuration 212
Jailing UML Instances 216
Providing Console Access Securely 223
skas3 versus skas0 225
Future Enhancements 226
sysemu 226
PTRACE_FAULTINFO 227
MADV_TRUNCATE 227
remap_file_pages 230
VCPU 231
Final Points 232

11 Compiling UML from Source 233
Downloading UML Source 234
Configuration 235
Useful Configuration Options 240
Compilation 249

12 Specialized UML Configurations 251
Large Numbers of Devices 252
Network Interfaces 252
Memory 257
Clusters 265
Getting Started 265
Booting the Cluster 268
Exercises 272
Other Clusters 273
UML as a Decision-Making Tool for Hardware 273

13 The Future of UML 275
The externfs Filesystem 277
Virtual Processes 282
Captive UML 283
Secure mod_perl 283
Evolution 286
Application Administration 287
A Standard Application Programming Interface 289
Application-Level Clustering 289
Virtualized Subsystems 295
Conclusion 298
A UML Command-Line Options 301
Device and Hardware Specifications 301
Debugging Options 303
Management Options 304
Informational Options 305
B UML Utilities Reference 307
humfsify 307
uml_moo 308
uml_mconsole 308
tunctl 310
uml_switch 311
Internal Utilities 312

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About Author JeffDike

Jeff Dike grew up in rural northwest Connecticut He graduated from MIT and went to work at Digital Equipment Corporation in New Hampshire. There he met several people who became prominent in the Linux world, including Jon Hall and a large contingent that now works at Red Hat. Jeff left Digital in 1993 during the implosion of the minicomputer market. He spent the next decade as an independent contractor and became a Linux kernel developer in 1999 after conceiving of and implementing UML Since then, UML has been his job, becoming a full-time paid one in mid-2004 when Intel hired him.

Application Performance Management (APM) for Free Book

Content in Book  Application Performance Management (APM)

Introduction 1
About This Book
Icons Used in This Book

Chapter 1: Understanding What Application
Performance Management Is
Complex Application and Infrastructure
Landscape
Different Elements of APM
Monitoring and Troubleshooting Applications

Chapter 2: From the Driver’s Seat:
Digital Experience Monitoring
Understanding User Behaviors and Patterns
DEM
RUM
STM

Chapter 3: Looking Under the Hood:
Transaction Tracing
Following Application Transactions
Across All Components
Monitoring Performance at the Code
Level at Every Step
Tracing Transactions

Chapter 4: Horsepower and Fuel Efficiency
Instrumentation: Keeping It Light
Dealing with Lots of Data — Every
Transaction Matters
Applying Big Data Techniques
Leveraging Analytics to Detect Patterns and
Problems

Chapter 5: Exploring the Application
Performance Management Terrain
Monitor Application Performance and SLA Compliance
Perform Triage
Troubleshoot Application Performance
Map Application Dependencies
Manage Application Performance in the Cloud
Manage Performance with Application and Infrastructure Change

Chapter 6: Application Performance
Management Evaluation Criteria
Digital Experience Monitoring (DEM)
Transaction Tracing
Application Discovery and Mapping
Applications Analytics

Application Performance Management For Dummies

Application Performance Management For Dummies, 2nd Riverbed Special Edition, introduces you to application performance management (APM) solutions and how these tools can help you monitor and troubleshoot your mission-critical applications — from the perspective of your users, as well as your systems.

About This Book

This book contains volumes of information that rival a map of the human genome, conveniently distilled into six short chapters chock-full of just the information you need! Each chapter is individually wrapped (but not packaged for individual sale) and written to stand on its own, so feel free to start reading anywhere and hop, skip, or jump between chapters (or around your office)! Here’s a brief look at what awaits you.

Chapter 1: Understanding What Application Performance Management Is. I begin by exploring some application trends and different elements of APM, including monitoring and troubleshooting.
Chapter 2: From the Driver’s Seat: Digital Experience Monitoring. This chapter takes a look at application performance from the user’s perspective.
Chapter 3: Looking Under the Hood: Transaction Tracing. Here, you take an in-depth look at how application transaction tracing accelerates troubleshooting, and how APM helps bridge the workflow between application support and development.
Chapter 4: Horsepower and Fuel Efficiency. In this chapter, you learn to use a “big data approach” to deal with all of the data that APM collects.
Chapter 5: Exploring the Application Performance Management Terrain. Here, you learn about some creative uses for APM to help improve efficiency and effectiveness in your organization.
Chapter 6: Application Performance Management Evaluation Criteria. Here, in classic For Dummies style, I tell you about several important criteria to look for in an APM solution.

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Linux from scratch

Linux From Scratch Free Book Download

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Preface ……………….. viii
i. Foreword ……. viii
ii. Audience …… viii
iii. LFS Target Architectures ………….. ix
iv. LFS and Standards ……………………. x
v. Rationale for Packages in the Book ………… xi
vi. Prerequisites ….. xvi
vii. Host System Requirements …….. xvi
viii. Typography ………………………….. xix
ix. Structure ……. xx
x. Errata …………. xx
I. Introduction ………… 1
1. Introduction ….. 2
1.1. How to Build an LFS System 2
1.2. What’s new since the last release …….. 2
1.3. Changelog …………………………. 4
1.4. Resources ………………………….. 9
1.5. Help …… 10
II. Preparing for the Build ………………….. 12
2. Preparing a New Partition …………. 13
2.1. Introduction ……………………… 13
2.2. Creating a New Partition …… 13
2.3. Creating a File System on the Partition ……………………….. 14
2.4. Mounting the New Partition . 15
3. Packages and Patches ……………….. 16
3.1. Introduction ……………………… 16
3.2. All Packages ……………………. 16
3.3. Needed Patches ………………… 23
4. Final Preparations …………………….. 25
4.1. About $LFS …………………….. 25
4.2. Creating the $LFS/tools Directory …. 25
4.3. Adding the LFS User ……….. 26
4.4. Setting Up the Environment . 26
4.5. About SBUs …………………….. 28
4.6. About the Test Suites ……….. 28
5. Constructing a Temporary System 30
5.1. Introduction ……………………… 30
5.2. Toolchain Technical Notes … 30
5.3. General Compilation Instructions …… 32
5.4. Binutils-2.23.2 – Pass 1 …….. 34
5.5. GCC-4.8.1 – Pass 1 …………… 36
5.6. Linux-3.10.10 API Headers .. 39
5.7. Glibc-2.18 ……………………….. 40
5.8. Libstdc++-4.8.1 ………………… 43
5.9. Binutils-2.23.2 – Pass 2 …….. 45
5.10. GCC-4.8.1 – Pass 2 …………. 47
5.11. Tcl-8.6.0 ………………………… 51
5.12. Expect-5.45 ……………………. 53
5.13. DejaGNU-1.5.1 ………………. 55
5.14. Check-0.9.10 ………………….. 56
5.15. Ncurses-5.9 ……………………. 57
5.16. Bash-4.2 ………………………… 58
5.17. Bzip2-1.0.6 …………………….. 59
5.18. Coreutils-8.21 …………………. 60
5.19. Diffutils-3.3 ……………………. 61
5.20. File-5.14 ………………………… 62
5.21. Findutils-4.4.2 ………………… 63
5.22. Gawk-4.1.0 …………………….. 64
5.23. Gettext-0.18.3 …………………. 65
5.24. Grep-2.14 ………………………. 66
5.25. Gzip-1.6 …………………………. 67
5.26. M4-1.4.16 ………………………. 68
5.27. Make-3.82 ……………………… 69
5.28. Patch-2.7.1 …………………….. 70
5.29. Perl-5.18.1 ……………………… 71
5.30. Sed-4.2.2 ……………………….. 72
5.31. Tar-1.26 …………………………. 73
5.32. Texinfo-5.1 …………………….. 74
5.33. Xz-5.0.5 …………………………. 75
5.34. Stripping ………………………… 76
5.35. Changing Ownership ………. 76
III. Building the LFS System ……………… 77
6. Installing Basic System Software .. 78
6.1. Introduction ……………………… 78
6.2. Preparing Virtual Kernel File Systems …………………………. 78
6.3. Package Management ……….. 80
6.4. Entering the Chroot Environment ….. 83
6.5. Creating Directories ………….. 84
6.6. Creating Essential Files and Symlinks …………………………. 85
6.7. Linux-3.10.10 API Headers .. 88
6.8. Man-pages-3.53 ………………… 89
6.9. Glibc-2.18 ……………………….. 90
6.10. Adjusting the Toolchain ….. 98
6.11. Zlib-1.2.8 ……………………… 100
6.12. File-5.14 ………………………. 101
6.13. Binutils-2.23.2 ………………. 102
6.14. GMP-5.1.2 ……………………. 105
6.15. MPFR-3.1.2 ………………….. 107
6.16. MPC-1.0.1 ……………………. 108
6.17. GCC-4.8.1 ……………………. 109
6.18. Sed-4.2.2 ……………………… 114
6.19. Bzip2-1.0.6 …………………… 115
6.20. Pkg-config-0.28 …………….. 117
6.21. Ncurses-5.9 …………………… 118
6.22. Shadow-4.1.5.1 ……………… 121
6.23. Util-linux-2.23.2 ……………. 124
6.24. Psmisc-22.20 ………………… 129
6.25. Procps-ng-3.3.8 …………….. 130
6.26. E2fsprogs-1.42.8 …………… 132
6.27. Coreutils-8.21 ……………….. 135
6.28. Iana-Etc-2.30 ………………… 140
6.29. M4-1.4.16 …………………….. 141
6.30. Flex-2.5.37 …………………… 142
6.31. Bison-3.0 ……………………… 144
6.32. Grep-2.14 …………………….. 145
6.33. Readline-6.2 …………………. 146
6.34. Bash-4.2 ………………………. 148
6.35. Bc-1.06.95 ……………………. 150
6.36. Libtool-2.4.2 …………………. 151
6.37. GDBM-1.10 …………………. 152
6.38. Inetutils-1.9.1 ……………….. 153
6.39. Perl-5.18.1 ……………………. 155
6.40. Autoconf-2.69 ………………. 158
6.41. Automake-1.14 ……………… 159
6.42. Diffutils-3.3 ………………….. 161
6.43. Gawk-4.1.0 …………………… 162
6.44. Findutils-4.4.2 ………………. 163
6.45. Gettext-0.18.3 ……………….. 165
6.46. Groff-1.22.2 ………………….. 167
6.47. Xz-5.0.5 ……………………….. 170
6.48. GRUB-2.00 ………………….. 172
6.49. Less-458 ………………………. 174
6.50. Gzip-1.6 ……………………….. 175
6.51. IPRoute2-3.10.0 ……………. 177
6.52. Kbd-1.15.5 …………………… 179
6.53. Kmod-14 ……………………… 182
6.54. Libpipeline-1.2.4 …………… 184
6.55. Make-3.82 ……………………. 185
6.56. Man-DB-2.6.5 ………………. 186
6.57. Patch-2.7.1 …………………… 189
6.58. Sysklogd-1.5 …………………. 190
6.59. Sysvinit-2.88dsf ……………. 191
6.60. Tar-1.26 ……………………….. 193
6.61. Texinfo-5.1 …………………… 195
6.62. Udev-206 (Extracted from systemd-206) ………………….. 197
6.63. Vim-7.4 ……………………….. 199
6.64. About Debugging Symbols ………… 202
6.65. Stripping Again …………….. 202
6.66. Cleaning Up …………………. 203
7. Setting Up System Bootscripts …. 204
7.1. Introduction ……………………. 204
7.2. General Network Configuration …… 204
7.3. Customizing the /etc/hosts File …….. 207
7.4. Device and Module Handling on an LFS System ………… 208
7.5. Creating Custom Symlinks to Devices ……………………….. 212
7.6. LFS-Bootscripts-20130821 . 214
7.7. How Do These Bootscripts Work? .. 216
7.8. Configuring the system hostname … 218
7.9. Configuring the setclock Script ……. 219
7.10. Configuring the Linux Console ….. 219
7.11. Configuring the sysklogd Script …. 222
7.12. The rc.site File ……………… 222
7.13. The Bash Shell Startup Files ……… 225
7.14. Creating the /etc/inputrc File ……… 227
8. Making the LFS System Bootable ……….. 229
8.1. Introduction ……………………. 229
8.2. Creating the /etc/fstab File .. 229
8.3. Linux-3.10.10 …………………. 231
8.4. Using GRUB to Set Up the Boot Process …………………… 234
9. The End ……. 236
9.1. The End …………………………. 236
9.2. Get Counted …………………… 236
9.3. Rebooting the System ……… 236
9.4. What Now? ……………………. 238
IV. Appendices …… 239
A. Acronyms and Terms ……………… 240
B. Acknowledgments ………………….. 243
C. Dependencies …………………………. 246
D. Boot and sysconfig scripts version-20130821 …………………….. 256
D.1. /etc/rc.d/init.d/rc ……………… 256
D.2. /lib/lsb/init-functions ……….. 260
D.3. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions …… 274
D.4. /etc/rc.d/init.d/mountvirtfs .. 288
D.5. /etc/rc.d/init.d/modules ……. 289
D.6. /etc/rc.d/init.d/udev …………. 291
D.7. /etc/rc.d/init.d/swap …………. 292
D.8. /etc/rc.d/init.d/setclock …….. 293
D.9. /etc/rc.d/init.d/checkfs ……… 294
D.10. /etc/rc.d/init.d/mountfs …… 297
D.11. /etc/rc.d/init.d/udev_retry . 298
D.12. /etc/rc.d/init.d/cleanfs ……. 300
D.13. /etc/rc.d/init.d/console ……. 302
D.14. /etc/rc.d/init.d/localnet …… 304
D.15. /etc/rc.d/init.d/sysctl ………. 305
D.16. /etc/rc.d/init.d/sysklogd ….. 306
D.17. /etc/rc.d/init.d/network …… 308
D.18. /etc/rc.d/init.d/sendsignals 309
D.19. /etc/rc.d/init.d/reboot ……… 311
D.20. /etc/rc.d/init.d/halt …………. 311
D.21. /etc/rc.d/init.d/template ….. 312
D.22. /etc/sysconfig/modules ….. 313
D.23. /etc/sysconfig/createfiles … 314
D.24. /etc/sysconfig/udev-retry .. 314
D.25. /sbin/ifup ……………………… 315
D.26. /sbin/ifdown …………………. 317
D.27. /lib/services/ipv4-static ….. 319
D.28. /lib/services/ipv4-static-route ……… 320
E. Udev configuration rules …………. 323
E.1. 55-lfs.rules …………………….. 323
F. LFS Licenses …………………………. 324
F.1. Creative Commons License 324
F.2. The MIT License ……………. 328
Index …………………. 329

Host System Requirements

Your host system should have the following software with the minimum versions indicated. This should not be an issue for most modern Linux distributions. Also note that many distributions will place software headers into separate packages, often in the form of “<package-name>-devel” or “<package-name>-dev”. Be sure to install those if your distribution provides them.

Earlier versions of the listed software packages may work, but has not been tested.

• Bash-3.2 (/bin/sh should be a symbolic or hard link to bash)
• Binutils-2.17 (Versions greater than 2.23.2 are not recommended as they have not been tested)
• Bison-2.3 (/usr/bin/yacc should be a link to bison or small script that executes bison)
• Bzip2-1.0.4
• Coreutils-6.9
• Diffutils-2.8.1
• Findutils-4.2.31
• Gawk-4.0.1 (/usr/bin/awk should be a link to gawk)
GCC-4.1.2 including the C++ compiler, g++ (Versions greater than 4.8.1 are not recommended as they have not been tested)
• Glibc-2.5.1 (Versions greater than 2.18 are not recommended as they have not been tested)
• Grep-2.5.1a
• Gzip-1.3.12
• Linux Kernel-2.6.32

The reason for the kernel version requirement is that we specify that version when building glibc in Chapter 6 at the recommendation of the developers. It is also required by udev.

If the host kernel is earlier than 2.6.32 you will need to replace the kernel with a more up to date version. There are two ways you can go about this. First, see if your Linux vendor provides a 2.6.32 or later kernel package. If so, you may wish to install it. If your vendor doesn’t offer an acceptable kernel package, or you would prefer not to install it, you can compile a kernel yourself. Instructions for compiling the kernel and configuring the boot loader (assuming the host uses GRUB) are located in Chapter 8.

• M4-1.4.10
• Make-3.81
• Patch-2.5.4
• Perl-5.8.8
• Sed-4.1.5
• Tar-1.18
• Texinfo-4.9
• Xz-5.0.0

Note that the symlinks mentioned above are required to build an LFS system using the instructions contained within this book. Symlinks that point to other software (such as dash, mawk, etc.) may work, but are not tested or supported by the LFS development team, and may require either deviation from the instructions or additional patches to some packages.

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